Landscape full of history

Both within the broad area included in the Regional Park and in surrounding areas, lies a rich archaeological, paleontological and ethnographic in which are represented the major stages of human occupation of the region in which there are good examples of urban historical, architecture or industrial archeology, which reflect the development of this region in recent centuries.

The space occupied by this protected natural area has been inhabited since the dawn of prehistory, when more than 300,000 years ago, human groups used the Lower Paleolithic hunting banks of the Jarama. Later, the first Neolithic settlers introduced agriculture and animal husbandry. Since then, different societies have economic and symbolic interacted with their environment, transforming the natural environment in an anthropic landscape.

The disposal of surface water courses that underpin the Park, the quality of the land around them and the presence of various vegetable and mineral resources have made this an area of great strategic attraction. For many thousands of years, that is, from the Neolithic to the end of the Bronze Age, the people farmed the land and herded the cattle moving from one place to another in search of better pastures and crops. Towards the end of prehistory definitely become sedentary, and the first stable settlements arise in high places, well defended and controlling the main routes that pass through this territory.

With Roman rule the road network is reinforced, with the former enclave of Titulcia one of the important points in the network of roads leading to Zaragoza and Segovia through the ancient Complutum (Alcalá de Henares). The whole area was then occupied by small towns and villages, or private farms. The model was dismantled Roman settlement in the High Middle Ages, and the Park area have been documented many Visigothic remains consistent in villages of huts and burial cemeteries seem to recover a mobility similar to prehistoric times.

During the Muslim period raises a number of garrisons in Madrid and Getafe, while several watchtowers and towers built in the Vega del Jarama, but the key step in the formation of population centers is the late Middle Ages, after the conquest of Toledo (1085), a stage that lasts until the fifteenth century, when consolidating the network of settlements.

With the establishment by King Philip II, in the sixteenth century, the court in Madrid, it were created real places, Madrid, El Pardo, El Escorial and Aranjuez, was built irrigation canals and water supply and the hierarchy starts the regional centers (Getafe and Chinchón). During the next two centuries, still maintaining the settlement pattern, there is a decline in the number of inhabitants, with the exception of Madrid, which grows disproportionately to the rest of the municipalities in the region.

In the first half of the nineteenth century is a territorial adjustment that results in the province of Madrid, with its current boundaries. In this century there was the rise and consolidation of farms in the valleys of Jarama and Henares, and started a century earlier. The territory is almost definitely appears articulate and rail, making rail Aranjuez an important center in addition to agricultural relevance of its land.

In the early twentieth century, and until the Civil War, overlooks an expansive dynamic by which large highway system, railroads and improvements occur in most nuclei. During the Civil War what is now the Regional Park becomes the scene of one of the major battles, the Battle of Jarama. During the month of February 1937 are fought fierce battles crossing the Jarama Valley from west to east, the front line stabilized in early March on the eastern edge of the park. At present there are still many vestiges of the war, forts, positions and trench lines.

After the war there is the abandonment of narrow gauge railways, both are being rebuilt, and new nuclei as Rivas. In the last third of the biggest changes occur with the development of the metropolitan area of Madrid and the dynamics that fall down in the municipalities that are situated outside the areas of development.