Natural area presentation

The properties and elements that help define the entire protected area, in turn produce sharp contrasts with the rest of the Community of Madrid. Thus, the physical, biological, social and economic southeast of Madrid, turn out to be the polar opposite of the territory in the mountain areas of the region. There, tree foliage, this land almost bare of vegetation, where summer temperatures that we move to Atlantic weather, while in the park almost exactly put us in the southeast Spanish, Almeria subdesert areas, which indicates the clear Mediterranean character park, in the Sierra towns with small populations and agricultural economic activity in southeastern towns continually growing with large industrial estates together to produce a capital Madrid frantic activity and, finally, there lie the higher altitudes with elevations of 2,000 meters, when the park just 700 meters are achieved.

So it would seem that from the Sierra to the innermost of the park, the contrasts are increased gradually in a mysterious kind of accumulation. In this peculiar environment, water is the natural ubiquitous and dominant in the lower valley of Jarama. This has been happening since the Tertiary, when its waters have shaped the territory of the park, until today, with its three tributaries Jarama, Manzanares, Tajuña and Henares, which unite their waters in the territory of the park. The existence of numerous gaps, mostly artificial, also contributes to that role. It is in these bodies of water where the fauna, particularly birds, are appropriate places for breeding, breeding, passage and wintering herons, cormorants, ducks, ruddy duck, swan are some 120 species of water birds in the park, which can feed on riparian vegetation, once lush, the wildlife or fish for carp, perch, sun and even calandinos, roach and barbel.

Flanking the eternal run of the river Jarama the cliffs and slopes gypsum, which caused the Quaternary river erosion. In these casts, as exceptional as fragile is the most unique flora of the Community of Madrid: jabuna, sisallo, grass freckles pennycress, chucarro are some species of flora that special. Their covers, shrubs and low density plants produce landscapes with large open spaces ideal places for promoting the existence of steppe birds such as bustards, little bustards and plovers. Very close to them, where the slopes become vertical walls forming beautiful cut, nesting peregrine falcons, owls, choughs and its vicinity, black kites.

From the air, which seems to have placed this vision of the park, you can observe other equally important aspects. In the forests composed of imitations of coscojas and pines, the oaks and oak that come, live and short-toed eagles Roadway, goshawks and owls with small stone martens, genets and foxes. While at the same time, here and there, everywhere, jumping, crouching, running, taking refuge in sores, are the rabbits.

All this important and very interesting biodiversity lives in a highly humanized environment because the environment is based on the population of a total of sixteen municipalities, to a greater or lesser extent contribute part of their land to build the park. The residents of these towns have been since ancient farmers and even today fifty percent of the territory of the park is for agricultural crops, mostly settled in the valley of the lower Jarama, in the plain of the river called, where corn is the crop par excellence.

Under the fertile soil of the plain jarameña are the siliceous gravel deposits that formed the mountains over millions of years with huge runs of Quaternary river erosion. These deposits are the target of the mining industry after the intended removal of the construction sector. That same basement holds a paleontological and archaeological past of great importance in the Community of Madrid, becoming another of the hidden values of the Park, part of the historical heritage of the region.

Outlined before the natural values of this territory, it became necessary to provide it with a legal instrument that would allow the protection of those values, an instrument which resulted in Law 6 / 94 of June 28, creating the Regional Park around the axes of the lower courses of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers.